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Hytelnet: 1st Directory of Internet Resources
Archive date: September 4, 1997 History of Hytelnet

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GLOSSARY OF TERMS FOR INTERNET RESOURCES

Anonymous FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
The procedure of connecting to a remote computer, as an anonymous or guest user, in order to transfer public files back to your local computer. (See also: FTP and Protocols)

BITNET
A cooperative computer network interconnecting over 2,300 academic and research institutions in 32 countries. Originally based on IBM's RSCS networking protocol, BITNET supports mail, mailing lists, and file transfer. Now merging with CSNET and running the RSCS protocol over TCP/IP protocol (BITNET II), the network will be called Computer Research and Education Network (CREN).

Client-Server Interface
A program that provides an interface to remote programs (called clients), most commonly across a network, in order to provide these clients with access to some service such as databases, printing, etc. In general, the clients act on behalf of a human end-user (perhaps indirectly).

CREN
Computer Research and Education Network is the new name for the merged computer networks, BITNET and Computer Science Network (CSNET). It supports electronic mail and file transfer.

Domain Name System (DNS)
The Internet naming scheme which consists of a hierarchical sequence of names, from the most specific to the most general (left to right), separated by dots, for example nic.ddn.mil. (See also: IP address)

Downloading
The electronic transfer of information from one computer to another, generally from a larger computer to a smaller one, such as a microcomputer.

Electronic Bulletin Board
A shared file where users can enter information for other users to read or download. Many bulletin boards are set up according to general topics and are accessable throughout a network.

FTP
File Transfer Protocol allows a user to transfer files electronically from remote computers back to the user's computer. Part of the TCP/IP/TELNET software suite.

Gateway
Used in different senses (e.g., Mail Gateway, IP Gateway), but most generally, a computer that forwards and routes data between two or more networks of any size.

Host Computer
In the context of networks, a computer that directly provides service to a user. In contrast to a network server, which provides services to a user through an intermediary host computer.

Internet
The series of interconnected networks that includes local area, regional, and national backbone networks. Networks in the Internet use the same telecommunications protocol (TCP/IP) and provide electronic mail, remote login, and file transfer services.

IP (Internet protocol)
The Internet standard protocol that provides a common layer over dissimilar networks, used to move packets among host computers and through gateways if necessary.

IP Address
The numeric address of a computer connected to the Internet; also called Internet address.

Listserv Lists (or listservers)
Electronic discussion of technical and nontechnical issues conducted by electronic mail over BITNET using LISTSERV protocols. Similar lists, often using the UNIX readnews or rn facilty, are available exclusively on the Internet. Internet users may subscribe to BITNET listservers. Participants subscribe via a central service, and lists often have a moderator who manages the information flow and content.

NIC (Network Information Center)
A NIC provides administrative support, user support, and information services for a network.

NREN
The National Research and Education Network is a proposed national computer network to be built upon the foundation of the NSF backbone network, NSFnet. NREN would provide high speed interconnection between other national and regional networks. SB 1067 is the legislative bill proposing NREN.

OPAC
Online Public Access Catalog, a term used to describe any type of computerized library catalog.

OSI (Open Systems Interconnection)
This is the evolving international standard under development at ISO (International Standards Organization) for the interconnection of cooperative computer systems. An open system is one that conforms to OSI standards in its communications with other systems.

Protocol
A mutually determined set of formats and procedures governing the exchange of information between systems.

Remote Access
The ability to access a computer from outside a building in which it is housed, or outside the library. Remote access requires communications hardware, software, and actual physical links, although this can be as simple as common carrier (telephone) lines or as complex as Telnet login to another computer across the Internet.

Shareware
Microcomputer software, distributed through public domain channels, for which the author expects to receive compensation.

TCP/IP
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol is a combined set of protocols that performs the transfer of data between two computers. TCP monitors and ensures correct transfer of data. IP receives the data from TCP, breaks it up into packets, and ships it off to a network within the Internet. TCP/IP is also used as a name for a protocol suite that incorporates these functions and others.

TELNET
A portion of the TCP/IP suite of software protocols that handles terminals. Among other functions, it allows a user to log in to a remote computer from the user's local computer.

Terminal Emulation
Most communications software packages will permit your personal computer or workstation to communicate with another computer or network as if it were a specific type of terminal directly connected to that computer or network.

Terminal Server
A machine that connects terminals to a network by providing host TELNET service.

TN3270
A version of TELNET providing IBM full-screen support.

Z39.50 Protocol
Name of the national standard developed by the National Information Standards Organization (NISO) that defines an applications level protocol by which one computer can query another computer and transfer result records, using a canonical format. This protocol provides the framework for OPAC users to search remote catalogs on the Internet using the commands of their own local systems. Projects are now in development to provide Z39.50 support for catalogs on the Internet. SR (Search and Retrieval), ISO Draft International Standard 10162/10163 is the international version of Z39.50.

HYTELNET was developed by Peter Scott: scott@lights.ca

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